Teil 15

H. Visser, A. Reniers, V.P.R.V. An Ultra-Wideband Antenna using Button-Cell Batteries

2011
Vol. 1, pp.   conference URL  Abstract: A first prototype button-cell batteries UWB antenna has been made, using two CR2032, 3V button cell batteries, copper tape, a lumped element capacitor and inductor and standard PCB FR4 material. The configuration is based upon a microstrip UWB antenna designed by the first author. Measurements show a perfect DC behavior and a fair RF behavior, showing a slightly larger than anticipated reflection coefficient (-7.5dB) as a function of frequency. Through full-wave analysis and experiments a second, improved prototype will be realized. BibTeX:
@conference{H.Visser2011a,
  author = {H. Visser, A. Reniers, V. Pop, R. Vullers},
  title = {An Ultra-Wideband Antenna using Button-Cell Batteries},
  booktitle = {},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {},
  url = {}
}
H. Visser, R.V. Design Equations for Small Loop-Based Rectennas 2011
Vol. 1Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference, pp.   conference URL  Abstract: A need exists for small devices, capable of simultaneously receiving data an power. Through connecting one or more Schottky diodes in parallel to a small loop antenna and further employing a capacitor it is possible to receive data and DC power simultaneously. Through using analytical equations the device may be optimized for data and/or power reception. BibTeX:
@conference{H.Visser2011b,
  author = {H. Visser, R. Vullers},
  title = {Design Equations for Small Loop-Based Rectennas},
  booktitle = {Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6114033&matchBoolean%3Dtrue%26searchField%3DSearch_All%26queryText%3D%28%28%28visser%29+AND+vullers%29+AND+loop%29}
}
H. Visser, R.V. A Miniature Printed Antenna With Outer Surface Cable Current Suppression and Low Proximity Effects 2011
Vol. 1European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1837 – 1841  conference URL  Abstract: A miniature antenna has been designed for use in the 2.45 GHz ISM frequency band. The design, having dimensions 60 mm × 11 mm × 3.6 mm fits within an eye frame. The antenna shows an input impedance that is independent from the connected coaxial cable due to the specially shaped ground plane, including current blocking slots. The antenna performs well in free space as well as in close proximity to the human head due to an encapsulation of the antenna in a dielectric. BibTeX:
@conference{H.Visser2011c,
  author = {H. Visser, R. Vullers},
  title = {A Miniature Printed Antenna With Outer Surface Cable Current Suppression and Low Proximity Effects},
  booktitle = {European Conference on Antennas and Propagation},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {1837 - 1841},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5781884&matchBoolean%3Dtrue%26searchField%3DSearch_All%26queryText%3D%28%28%28visser%29+AND+vullers%29+AND+proximity%29}
}
H. Visser, S.K. Radiative RF Power Transfer Solutions for Wireless Sensors 2014
Vol. 1International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation , pp. 1401 – 1402  conference URL  Abstract: Two rectennas are presented. One consists of a printed 5? antenna, connected to a loaded voltage doubling rectifier through a LC impedance matching network. The other one consists of a printed loop antenna, complex conjugately impedance-matched to the same rectifier. The second rectenna is reduced in size by a factor of more than four with respect to the first rectenna and showing a 55% RF-to-DC powerconversion efficiency at an input power level of -10 dBm. This is a 5% improvement with respect to the 5?-based rectenna. BibTeX:
@conference{H.Visser2014,
  author = {H. Visser, S. Keyrouz},
  title = {Radiative RF Power Transfer Solutions for Wireless Sensors},
  booktitle = {International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation },
  publisher = {},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {1401 - 1402},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6905026&queryText%3Dradiative+RF+power+transfer+solutions+for+wireless+sensors}
}
H. Visser, S. Keyrouz, B.S. Optimized Rectenna Design 2015 Wireless Power Transfer
Vol. accepted for publication(), pp.   article URL  Abstract: Design steps are outlined for maximizing the RF-to-dc Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) of a rectenna. Based on an analysis of the rectifier it turns out that the rectenna should be designed for low frequency and low input power levels, next to being impedance matched to the antenna. It is demonstrated that a rectenna thus designed, using a 50W antenna and lumped element matching network gives a superior PCE compared to state of the art. By omitting the matching network and directly, conjugate impedance matching the antenna to the rectifier, the PCE may be further increased and the rectenna size reduced as is demonstrated with a rectenna prototype measuring only 0.028 squared wavelengths at 868MHz and demonstrating a PCE of 55% for a -10dBm RF input power level. BibTeX:
@article{H.Visser2015,
  author = {H. Visser, S. Keyrouz, B. Smolders},
  title = {Optimized Rectenna Design},
  journal = {Wireless Power Transfer},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {accepted for publication},
  number = {},
  pages = {},
  url = {}
}
H. Visser, V. Pop, R.E.R.Z.R.V. A Miniature Antenna with Low Proximity Effects and Integrated Lithylene Antenna 2011
Vol. 1Smart Systems Integration, pp.   conference URL  Abstract: The feasibility of realizing a 2.4-2.5GHz, combined antenna/battery within a volume BibTeX:
@conference{H.Visser2011,
  author = {H. Visser, V. Pop, R. Elfrink, R. Zhou, R. Vullers},
  title = {A Miniature Antenna with Low Proximity Effects and Integrated Lithylene Antenna},
  booktitle = {Smart Systems Integration},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {},
  url = {}
}
Keyrouz, S. Practical Rectennas: RF Power Harvesting and Transport 2014 School: Eindhoven University of Technology  mastersthesis URL  BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Keyrouz2014,
  author = {S. Keyrouz},
  title = {Practical Rectennas: RF Power Harvesting and Transport},
  school = {Eindhoven University of Technology},
  year = {2014},
  url = {http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/774472.pdf}
}
M. Stoopman, S. Keyrouz, H.V.K.P.W.S. Co-Design of a CMOS Rectifier and Small Loop Antenna for Highly Sensitive RF Energy Harvesters 2014 IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Vol. 49(3), pp. 622-634  article URL  Abstract: In this paper, a design method for the co-design and integration of a CMOS rectifier and small loop antenna is described. In order to improve the sensitivity, the antenna-rectifier interface is analyzed as it plays a crucial role in the co-design optimization. Subsequently, a 5-stage cross-connected differential rectifier with a 7-bit binary-weighted capacitor bank is designed and fabricated in standard 90 nm CMOS technology. The rectifier is brought at resonance with a high-Q loop antenna by means of a control loop that compensates for any variation at the antenna-rectifier interface and passively boosts the antenna voltage to enhance the sensitivity. A complementary MOS diode is proposed to improve the harvester’s ability to store and hold energy over a long period of time during which there is insufficient power for rectification. The chip is ESD protected and integrated on a compact loop antenna. Measurements in an anechoic chamber at 868 MHz demonstrate a -27 dBm sensitivity for 1 V output across a capacitive load and 27 meter range for a 1.78 W RF source in an office corridor. The end-to-end power conversion efficiency equals 40% at -17 dBm. BibTeX:
@article{M.Stoopman2014,
  author = {M. Stoopman, S. Keyrouz, H. Visser, K. Philips, W. Serdijn},
  title = {Co-Design of a CMOS Rectifier and Small Loop Antenna for Highly Sensitive RF Energy Harvesters},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {49},
  number = {3},
  pages = {622-634},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6740091&matchBoolean%3Dtrue%26searchField%3DSearch_All%26queryText%3D%28%28stoopman%29+AND+visser%29}
}
M. Stoopman, S. Keyrouz, H.V.W.S. A Self-Calibrating RF Energy Harvester Generating 1V at -26.3dBm 2013
Vol. 1Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp. C226 – 227  conference URL  Abstract: This paper presents a self-calibrating RF energy harvester capable of harvesting at lower input power levels than current state-of-the-art RFharvesters. A 5 stage cross-connected bridge rectifier is brought at resonance with a high-Q loop antenna by means of a 7-bit binary weighted capacitor bank. A control loop compensates any variation in the antenna-rectifier interface and passively boosts the antenna voltage to enhance the sensitivity. The rectifier and capacitor bank have been implemented in standard 90nm CMOS technology, includes ESD protection and are integrated on the antenna. Measurements in an anechoic chamber at 868 MHz show a -26.3 dBm sensitivity for 1V output and 25 meter range for a 1.78 W RF source in an office corridor. The maximum power efficiency of the complete harvester is 31.5%. BibTeX:
@conference{M.Stoopman2013,
  author = {M. Stoopman, S. Keyrouz, H. Visser, W. Serdijn},
  title = {A Self-Calibrating RF Energy Harvester Generating 1V at -26.3dBm},
  booktitle = {Symposium on VLSI Circuits},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {C226 - 227},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6578672&queryText%3DA+self-calibrating+rf+energy+harvester}
}
Visser, H. Design Considerations for Low-Power, High-Sensitivity Rectennas 2014
Vol. 1European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 2957 – 2960  conference URL  Abstract: Through analysis it is found that the only steps available to maximize the voltage at the input of a rectifying and voltage multiplication circuit for a given low level of power available from the antenna are: Design the rectifier/multiplier circuit for a minimum real part of the input admittance and conjugate match the antenna to the rectifier/multiplier circuit. Use antenna miniaturization up to a level that still yields an acceptable radiation efficiency and start from a small loop antenna. BibTeX:
@conference{Visser2014,
  author = {H. Visser},
  title = {Design Considerations for Low-Power, High-Sensitivity Rectennas},
  booktitle = {European Conference on Antennas and Propagation},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {2957 - 2960},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6902448&queryText%3Ddesign+considerations+for+low-power+high-sensitivity+rectennas}
}
Visser, H. Far-Field RF Energy Transport 2013
Vol. 1Radio and Wireless Symposium, pp. 34 – 36  conference URL  Abstract: For Smart Building Integration many wireless sensors are needed. Far-field RF energy transport may be used to charge the batteries of these sensors. Due to path loss and transmit power limitations the RF power available at the sensors will be very low. By optimizing not only the receiving rectifying antenna, but also the transmitter radiation pattern, based on the propagation channel characteristics, the RF energytransport efficiency will be improved. BibTeX:
@conference{Visser2013,
  author = {H. Visser},
  title = {Far-Field RF Energy Transport},
  booktitle = {Radio and Wireless Symposium},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {34 - 36},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6486632&queryText%3Dfar+field+rf+energy+transport}
}
Visser, H. Printed Folded Dipole Antenna Design for Rectenna and RFID Applications 2013
Vol. 1European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 2852 – 2855  conference URL  Abstract: An approximate or engineering model for a modified, asymmetric stripfolded dipole antenna is discussed. The modification consists of adding short-circuit strips in the folded dipole arms, thereby giving means for input impedance tuning. This tuning is necessary for directly matching theantenna to the complex input impedance of the rectifier that is connected to the antenna to form a rectifying antenna or rectenna. The engineering model, when implemented in software, results in fast calculation times and allows implementation in an optimization shell for automatic antennasynthesis. To be able to use the antenna/rectenna in close proximity to a metallic object, while maintaining its low profile, the antenna will be placed on a thin EBG structure. First analysis results are demonstrated. BibTeX:
@conference{Visser2013a,
  author = {H. Visser},
  title = {Printed Folded Dipole Antenna Design for Rectenna and RFID Applications},
  booktitle = {European Conference on Antennas and Propagation},
  publisher = {},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {2852 - 2855},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.dianus.libr.tue.nl/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6546821&queryText%3Dprinted+folded+dipole+antenna+design}
}
Visser, H. Approximate Antenna Analysis for CAD 2009
Vol.   book URL  Abstract: In this book, Hubregt J. Visser provides an introduction to the fundamentals of antenna design and the implementation of design models. A variety of antennas for wireless applications and communications systems are explained, and the real-life use of the antennas is demonstrated through extensive use of application examples. The author includes discussions on the design process of several antennas, such as intravascular MR Antennas, PCB antennas, RFID antennas, rectennas etc. Furthermore, emphasis is placed on Computer Aided Design (CAD) using approximated models. BibTeX:
@book{Visser2009,
  author = {H. Visser},
  title = {Approximate Antenna Analysis for CAD},
  publisher = {John Wiley & Sons},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {},
  edition = {},
  url = {}
}

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